The standard provisions of copyright laws regarding quoted material under copyright apply to electronic publication. Dissertations are scanned by ProQuest for previously copyrighted material. When a student has published portions of their dissertation as articles in a copyrighted journal, permission from the journal to include that material must be obtained. ProQuest requires written permission from the copyright holder of any extensively quoted material. Emailed approvals from the journals are accepted. Proper acknowledgement within the text of the manuscript must be made. Students should discuss questions about copyrighted material with their dissertation director.